Life Expectancy in India : Life expectancy of an average individual in India has enhanced by more than 10 years in the past two decades. However, it still falls short when compared with already developed and other developing nations, the infant death rate is 3X higher than that of China’s and 7 times higher than America. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life expectation as, “the average figure of years a person is probable to live on the basis of the current mortality rates and occurrence distribution of health states in a population”.
The source of potable water and better manager of non-communicable viruses are one of the main reason for growing average lifespan of people in India – just a hundred year ago the average lifespan in India was as low as 23 years. Deadly infections such as diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough are completely eliminated completely. Recently India has also been declared a polio free nation. It is estimated that 20% of deaths among Indian males aged between 30 and 69 is due to the excessive use of tobacco and similar products. Till now India has no not been able to find a solution to some of the new issues that affect civilization.
Kerala has the highest life expectancy at birth for both males and females in rural areas, Himachal Pradesh recorded the highest for males in urban areas, and Jammu and Kashmir for females in urban areas. The lowermost life expectancy at birth was in the State of MP for rural males and Assam for rural females. In Urban, the lowest life expectancy at birth was documented in Chhattisgarh and UP for males and females respectively.
Data is used from SRS for the period 1981–2011 to study trends in inequality in span of life in India and 15 major states of India. Sample Registration System (SRS) under the aegis of the Office of the Registrar-General of India (RGI) is the primary and continuous source of data on death and life’s tabula form for India and 16 major states.
These states are Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan (all from the north), Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (from the central), Assam (from the Northeast), West Bengal, Odisha and Bihar (from the east), Gujarat and Maharashtra (from the west), and Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (from the south). One of these 16 states, Himachal Pradesh, could not be included in the analysis as the data is deficient for Himachal Pradesh for the years 1980, 1981, and 1990.
In SRS, the enumerators match the noted energetic in a illustrative sample of rural and urban units with those from a bi-annual retrospective survey by independent supervisors (RGI 2013). The SRS provides information on age-specific death rates in different age groups up to 70+ starting from the year 1970. The SRS in the year 1995 disaggregated the age group 70+ into 70–74, 75–79, 80–84, and 85+ year age groups. Along with this, RGI also provides abridged life tables based on SRS data for 5-year periods starting from 1970 to 1975.
Since the SRS-based life tables in 1990s and early 2000s are noticeable by inconsistencies in the age groups 1–4 (Saikia 2010), we do not borrow the life expectancies from those life tables for our analysis. Instead, we use age-specific death rates published by the SRS to generate new life tables for our analysis.
For decomposing the disparity in Life expectancy in India by age and causes of death, we use data from the two rounds of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study conducted in the years 1990 and 2010 (GBD 2013). GBD data is collected and analysed by a consortium of more than 1000 researchers in over 100 countries.
The GBD data captures premature death and disability from more than 300 infections and wounds in 188 countries, by age and sex, from 1990 to the present, allowing assessment over time, across age groups, and among populations. With this wide classification of the GBD study, we categorize the causes of deaths into three major categories: communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional conditions, non-communicable diseases, injuries (GBD 2013).
Life Expectancy in India
According to official figures, life expectancy in India what used to be 62.3 years for male and for female it is 63 in 2001-2005 is now 67.3 years for male and 69.6 years for female in 2011-2015, reduction in new HIV cases by as much as 57 %. Infant Mortality Rate has come down to 42 in 2012 from 58 per 10,000 live births in the year 2005. Maternal Mortality Ratio declined from 301 per 100,000 live births in 2001-03 to 212 in 2007-09. The Government increased budget outlay by 335 % to Rs. 3 lakh core in 12th Plan for healthcare to accomplish universal and comprehensive healthcare for all citizens.